Roger Arliner Young, combined post

November 30th, 2011

Roger Arliner Young was the first African American woman to receive a doctorate in zoology.  She faced many difficulties including juggling research, teaching, and caring for her ill mother.  She entered Howard University in 1916 and studied biology under Dr. Ernest Just.  She graduated with her bachelors degree in 1923.  When Young entered the University of Chicago she began publishing her research.  “On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium,” appeared in Science in September 1924.  By 1926, Young obtained her Master’s Degree.    She spent the summer working for Just at a Marine Biological Laboratory in Massachusetts. Here they conducted research on the fertilization process in marine organisms and the dehydration and hydration in living cells.  Her relationship with Just continued to grow as well as her knowledge and  expertise.  She stood in as the head of the Howard zoology department while Just was working in Europe.  Young returned to the University of Chicago to get her PhD, however she failed her qualifying exams.  The stress was getting to her.  Not only was she broke but she had to continue to care for her ill mother and continue her studies, this stress led to mental instability.

Young continued to teach at Howard University until she was fired for missing class and mistreatment of lab equipment.   She took this opportunity to attend University of Pennsylvania and to begin a doctorate under L. V. Heilbrunn.  She continued on and worked at many different Universities, however her mental health continued to fail.  She was placed in the Mississippi State Mental Asylum.  Unfortunately, she died poor and alone on November 9, 1964.

First African American woman to receive a Ph.D in zoology.

She did not receive any awards.  However, she was still successful.

>She published three works in prestigious science magazines including:

“On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium”

“Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs” co-authored with L. V. Heilbrunn

“The Indirect Effects of Roetgen Rays on Certain Marine Eggs”

 

>She taught at many universities including:

-North Carolina College for Negros in Raleigh

-Jackson State College in Mississippi

Role model behavior:

I believe Dr. Roger Arliner Young would be comfortable as a role model because she displayed determination and persistence through difficult times.  Her mentor, Ernest Everette Just had an impact on her life and I believe she would like to be able to use her love of zoology and biology to influence and encourage upcoming scientists.

Young was able to keep up with her studies, work summers at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts and care for her ill mother.  She continued to work through mental instability and persevered through difficult circumstances.

Ernest Everett Just v. Roger Arliner Young

Ernest Everett Just was born was born August 14, 1883 in Charleston, South Carolina and died October 27, 1941 in Washington D.C.  Just specialized in zoology, biology, and physiology, but had special honors in botany and history, and honors in sociology.  He prepared for college at Kimball Hall Academy, in New Hampshire, where he completed the four-year course of study in only three years.  He graduated magna cum laude from Dartmouth College in 1907. In 1916, Dr. Just graduated magna cum laude from University of Chicago receiving his doctorate in experimental embryology, with a thesis on the mechanics offertilization.

 

I chose Ernest Everett Just to compare to Roger Arliner Young because of his influence on her life, his success, and study of science.  If you recall from the previous information, Just was Young’s first science professor and mentor and they worked closely together at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts.  They both received up to a PhD attended Howard University.  Just’s influence and close working environments were two contributing factors my choice in male scientists.

 

Ernest Everett Just Roger Arliner Young
Education Bachelor’s,Master’s, PhD in experimental embryology from the University of Chicago. Bachelor’s, Master’s, PhD in Zoology from the University of Pennsylvania.
Positions Head of the Department of Zoology and Department of Physiology, Member of the Marine Biological Laboratory. Professor, Member of the Marine Biological Laboratory
Awards and Recognition Recipient of the first Spingarn Medal (1915) for his research in Biology (NAACP), Postage Stamp No awards or recognition
Publications Published more than sixty published articles in scientific journals, He published two books, The Biology of the Cell Surface (1939) and Basic Methods for Experiments on Eggs of Marine Animals(1939). ”On the Excretory Apparatus in Paramecium,” ”Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs,” and ”The Indirect Effects of Roetgen Rays on Certain Marine Eggs.
Family influcence No family influence Forced to care for her invalid mother, in many instances her grades suffered.

Gender

I believe gender ender did not influence Roger Arliner Young’s career nor Ernest Everett Just’s.  Both were successful because of their hard work and discoveries.  Just published over 60 articles and wrote two books.  His colleges also trusted his opinion and had him edit many of their works.  In the long run, Dr. Just was more successful in his findings, and published more works, however this was purely based off of individual motivation.  If anything, Young was influenced most by her family.  If she was not caring for her mother, she may have been able to commit more time to the sciences.

 

Society of Women Engineers:

Society of Women Engineers was established in 1950.

There are nearly 20,000. It divides the United States into ten regions.

The SWE’s primary mission is to encourage women engineers to attain high levels of education and professional achievement.

Would Roger Arliner Young Join?

No, Roger Arliner Young would not join because she was a Zoologist and this organization is specifically for engineers.

However, this does support her views regarding education.  Young was a college professor at many different universities which shows she is interesting in education students so they can be successful in the science field.

A project Young would encourage is bringing engineering to the students in K-12 classrooms.  This encourages female students to per sue careers in science and that is exactly what Young worked toward.

 

Works Cited

Bellis, Mary. “Ernest Just – Egg Fertilization and Ernest Just.” Inventors. About.com. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://inventors.about.com/od/ijstartinventors/a/Ernest_Just.htm>.

Brown, Mitchell C. “Ernest Everett Just: Zoologist, Biologist, Physiologist, Research Scientist.” The Faces of Science: African Americans in Science. 25 Nov. 2007. Web. 24 Oct. 2011. <https://webfiles.uci.edu/mcbrown/display/just.html>.

Davis, Veronica A. “Roger Arliner Young.” Inspiring African American Women of Virginia. New

York: IUniverse, 2005. 249-51. Web.

“Ernest E. Just.” San José State University – Powering Silicon Valley. SJSU Virtual Museum. Web. 26 Oct. 2011. <http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/Museum/ernest.html>.

“Ernest Everett Just Biography” BookRags.com. Web. 26 Oct. 2011.

<http://www.bookrags.com/biography/ernest-everett-just-wsd/>.

Manning, Kenneth R. “Roger Arliner Young: Scientist.” Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black 

Women. 6, no. 2 (Fall 1989) 3-7. http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/roger-

young-groundbreaking-zoologist. Web.

Manning, Kenneth R. The Society: Race, Gender and Science. History of Science Society, 1995.

http://www.hssonline.org/about/society_manning.html. Web.

Proffitt, Pamela. “Roger Arliner Young.” Notable Women Scientists. Detroit: Gale Group, 1999.

635-37. Print.

Warren, Wini. Black Women Scientists in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University

Press, 1999. 287-295. Print.

“Aspire, SWE K-12.” The Society of Women Engineers. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.

<http://aspire.swe.org/>.

“Society of Women Engineers.” The Society of Women Engineers. Web. 16 Nov. 2011.

<http://societyofwomenengineers.swe.org/index.php>.

helpful sources and links:

October 4th, 2011

Bibliography; Roger Arliner Young

September 13th, 2011

Primary Sources:

Heilbrunn, L. V., and Roger A. Young. “Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs.”

Biological Bulletin (1935).

This is Roger Arliner Young and L. V. Heilbrunn’s scientific journal of their experiment “Indirect Effects of Radiation on Sea Urchin Eggs.” This experiment concluded that when sea urchin eggs are in the presence of ovarian tissue the effect of the radiation is more pronounced. This source does not necessarily give information about Young’s life or hardships, however it shows he passion and interest in zoology.  This is proof that women and men are equally as talented in biology.  This is a primary source, therefore it is very reliable and accurate.

 

Secondary Sources:

Davis, Veronica A. “Roger Arliner Young.” Inspiring African American Women of Virginia. New

York: IUniverse, 2005. 249-51. Web.

This source was available on Google Books.

Roger Arliner Young was very successful although she faced many challenges in her life.  She was a good student until she found her course load to be unbearable to keep up with while supporting her ill mother and herself.  In order to do so, she began to sell her works.  This act of desperation proved to be a huge accomplishment allowing Young to become one of the leading female biologist of her era.  This source has a list of her accomplishments by date, as well as her published works and memberships.  This is a very helpful and reliable source.

 

Manning, Kenneth R. “Roger Arliner Young: Scientist.” Sage: A Scholarly Journal on Black 

Women. 6, no. 2 (Fall 1989) 3-7.

This section regarding Young and Just was published online and can be found at http://www.aaregistry.org/historic_events/view/roger-young-groundbreaking-zoologist.

This source discusses many of the problems and difficulties Young faced. “Her story is one of grit and perseverance” due to the fact she was juggling research, teaching, and caring for her invalid mother.  This source then discusses her studies at Howard University under Ernest Everett Just.  After accomplishing so much and becoming the first African American woman to receive a doctorate in zoology, she was fired for missing class and mistreating lab equipment.  This excerpt shows the struggles Young faced and the relationships she built along the way.

 

Manning, Kenneth R. The Society: Race, Gender and Science. History of Science Society, 1995.

Print.

This section regarding race and gender in science can be found online at http://www.hssonline.org/about/society_manning.html.

The Society discusses “the emergence and experience of women and African Americans as working scientists and as members of the scientific community.” This source writes about individual biographies and experience as well as an overview of social and cultural content.  Many African American scientists, both male and female, faced racial discrimination and were handicapped by who they were.  Young in particular faced financial problems and anxiety to the point where she was placed in a mental hospital.  This source was very well written and accurate when placed against other sources.

 

Warren, Wini. Black Women Scientists in the United States. Bloomington: Indiana University

Press, 1999. 287-295. Print.

This source discussed the relationship and works between Young and Just.  It quotes Young directly and gives the reader insight to her feelings of stress, exhaustion, and thoughts of failure during her experiments.  Near the end of Young’s career she faced many problems with Just.  His had a negative attitude toward her resulted in the termination of her work in 1936. This source was very helpful because it gives the reader quotes from Young and the difficulties she faced.

 

Tertiary Sources:

Proffitt, Pamela. “Roger Arliner Young.” Notable Women Scientists. Detroit: Gale Group, 1999.

635-37. Print.

This resource provides general information regarding Young’s early education through her post doctorate career.  This source does not necessarily go in depth about Young’s life and accomplishments, however it summarizes important events. Each of the six sections are cohesive and easy to understand, allowing the reader quick access to Young’s life.  This tertiary source was very helpful by pointing the reader to other secondary sources.

Roger Arliner Young (1899–1964); Zoologist Introduction

September 1st, 2011

Hello, my name is Christine Valvo and I am currently a freshmen at the University of Mary Washington.  This site is an aggregate of work I have submitted to my Freshman Seminar (FSEM 100 F8 Beauty and Brains–Women in the Sciences). I have investigated and wrote about Roger Arliner Young.  These posts are an attempt to share my knowledge, information, and interests.  I have been exploring her life, contributions, and the impact and challenges she faced during her career.  These posts should not be used as primary reference material for any academic work (e.g., class paper).   A bibliography of relevant sources is posted as a reference guide for others.

  • About

    This is an area on your website where you can add text. This will serve as an informative location on your website, where you can talk about your site.

  • Blogroll
  • Admin